Традиционные методы шпонирования

Традиционные методы с применением фанеровочного молотка и мездрового клея.

rendering has been practiced for thousands of years. It's a way to take some of the world's most spectacular but unstable woods, cut them to paper-thinness and glue them to a stable foundation. By veneering, you can repeat natural patterns, create intricate borders and inlays, arrange grain direction and create surface designs that would be impossible to make with solid wood.
Using veneer adds a new dimension to furniture making and offers wonderful opportunities to the woodworker. However, from a technical perspective, there is the problem of attaching this skin securely to a wood substrate. You don't want a veneered surface to peel, crack or buckle.
From an aesthetic perspective, it allows the maker to design the "look" of his or her creation, almost like a painter working on a canvas. Veneer can change the per-ception of a piece. A delicate inlay can emphasize a feature: a cuff around a leg visually anchors a

To get the veneer to lie flat, spray it with a solution of glycerin, alcohol, glue and water then press it between sheets of paper and plywood.
piece; bookmatched doors pro-vide symmetry. Veneer can ele-vate your furniture from simple to sophisticated.
But, some woodworkers shy from using veneer. First, the term "veneer" implies to some people poor quality and shoddy, dishonest craftsmanship. Then, the process itself is so mysterious. Veneer is thin, fragile and prone to breaking apart. The tools and techniques used in veneering seem difficult and strange.
If a woodworker were inter-ested, where would he or she start? What tools would be needed? How large and difficult a project should be attempted? As a teacher, I'm always searching for ways to make woodworking more accessible. A project such as this gentleman's dressing mirror is a perfect intro-duction to traditional veneering.
I've taught this project class at the college level, and the Philadel-phia Furniture Workshop is planning to put it on the schedule soon. (Complete plans for the dressing mirror are available through the school for $40 at philadelphiafurnitureworkshop.com).

Traditional Hot Glue and Hammer Veneering
There are several ways to apply veneer to a piece. And if you're serious about veneering, it's a good idea to become familiar with all of them. I think the best method to learn first is traditional hammer veneering.
Of all the methods, gluing veneer with hot мездровый клей and pressing it with a hammer can be the most challenging — and the most satisfying. To achieve suc-cess takes a generous amount of patience, a delicate but firm touch and a critical eye. Tackling this method on a small but manage-able scale will build confidence and develop your skills.
For this project, I used mahog-any crotch veneer. This is a rich and shimmering veneer filled with light that often features a feather-like grain pattern down the cen-ter. Because the cabinet is small, the feather should also be small, and scaled to the cabinet. Many veneer suppliers have photos on their web sites to help you make your selection.
I ordered several sequential leaves to ensure color and grain pattern uniformity — or in case I made a mistake. And having vir-tually identical leaves will make your inevitable patches almost invisible.
For this project, 1 ordered three 18" x 30" crotches from Ben Bar-rett of Berkshire Veneers (413-644-9696 or berkshireveneer. com), who searched his inven-tory and sent me some beautiful crotch leaves that were perfect for the project. These pieces provided all the veneer I needed.

Flattening the Veneer
When the veneer arrives it will probably be buckled and brittle. Veneer in this state is difficult to work, so you'll need to flatten and soften it. This is easily accom-plished with a solution of water, glycerin, alcohol and glue (fish or hide). For this project I used about 1 quart of the solution I typically mix; 3 parts water, 34 part glycerin, 1 part alcohol, and V4 part glue.
After soaking the veneer on both sides with the solution (dispensed from a spray bottle), I pressed the veneer leaves between sheets of ply wood, using absorbent paper (either brown kraft paper or plain newsprint) between the leaves, and then weighted every-thing down for 24 hours. You only need enough weight to keep the veneer flat, so scrap wood or any-thing else you have around your shop will do.

Veneer leaves should always be sequential for the best match in terms of figure and color. Most figured veneers will need to be flattened before use.
If the veneer isn't flat the next day, repeat the process. Or if the veneer is flat but still damp, change the absorbent paper and wait another 24 hours. When the veneer is completely dry, flat and pliable, it will cut easily and glue up nicely with minimal checking
To get the veneer to lie flat, spray it with a solution of glycerin, alcohol, glue and water then press it between sheets of paper and plywood.
parts (allow generous margins all around), reserving the most strik-ing veneer for the sides, top and drawer front. Then lay out the sides and top so that the grain is continuous, running up one side, over the top then down the other side, without interruption. The underside of the cabinet is not veneered. Save the second leaf for the drawer front. Everything else can be cut from the leftovers. Rest your veneer on a flat scrap of plywood and put a wooden straightedge on the line. Rest your veneer saw against the straight-edge and gently pull it toward you. (See "Tuning Up a Veneer Saw" on page 69 to get better saw performance.) It will take several passes to make the cut.
When preparing the narrow strips for the cabinet edge, the mir-ror frame and the feet, I first apply veneer tape to the strips to protect them. This paper tape (activated by moisture and available from veneer suppliers) acts as reinforce-ment, helping to keep the veneer strips flat and in one piece.
Lightly wet the veneer strip on both sides, apply the tape to the top side, and press gently with a rubber roller. Then weight the strips down with a piece of scrap until they dry. Highly figured wood usually has small cracks or other defects and I also use veneer tape to repair these.

Preparing the Glue
мездровый клей hasbeenusedin veneer-ing for thousands of years, and was used on most of the antique veneered furniture you find today. The glue is made from animal hides, blood and bones that have been dried and pulverized. It comes in pearl or flake form and is activated with heat and water. I obtain мездровый клей from Tools for Working Wood (800-426-4613 or toolsforworkingwood.com). They also carry the glue pot and other tools mentioned in this article.
Hot мездровый клей does have some advantages over other adhesives. When it cools, it sticks. That eliminates the need for a press. It can be reactivated with heat - or by the addition of more glue. It is water-soluble and cleans up with warm water.
For a project of this size, I place about VL cup (dry) of hide flakes in a small j ar then cover over the glue with warm water and let it sit for about 20 minutes before placing the jar into the glue pot sleeve.
After 15 minutes, stir the glue until it runs freely from the brush. Then take a small amount between your middle and fore fingers and rub. The glue should develop tack in a couple of minutes. If left uncovered, the glue will Several strokes with the veneer saw held against a straightedge will create a clean edge on the veneer leaf.
мездровый клей is generously applied to the back of the Using a фанеровочный молоток, press firmly down on the Let the glue cool and stiffen, then use a veneer edge veneer with a brush. edge. Look for a tight joint and light glue squeezesaw to trim off the excess. You should leave 1/32" out. Let the veneer overlap at the corners. to Vie" margin.
thicken as the water evaporates. To maintain the consistency of your glue, cover the j ar with its lid or a damp towel. If you add more water to thin the glue, remember to allow the glue to warm to its proper temperature (HOT) before brushing it onto your work.

Gluing Down the Veneer
When you apply veneer at any corner, one layer of veneer is trimmed flush with the substrate surface, then the next layer of veneer is applied perpendicular to the first. The second layer covers the first, but its edge remains visible - and vulnerable.
You must consider the order in which you veneer. And it's always a choice between hiding the veneer seam and protecting it. For example, you usually veneer the edges on a drawer front first, then veneer the front itself. When the drawer is closed, the veneer edge is not visible.
Apply warm glue to the box edge, then to the edge veneer. After centering the strip on the edge, apply glue on top of the tape (this lubricates the pressing). Then with firm but careful pres-sure, press down along the edge with the фанеровочный молоток (more like a veneer squeegee), looking for light glue squeeze-out along both sides of the edging.
Work your way around the box, overlapping the edging at the corners. Then, with a sharp marking knife, cut through both layers, across the corners, to make the miters. After cutting through both layers, carefully remove the cut-off pieces with the tip of the knife and apply veneer tape to draw the miter joint closed. If the glue cools before you can trim the miters, rewarm the j oint with an iron or by applying more glue, then trim and tape.
When the glue cools and bonds, trim off the excess veneer with the saw and flush the edge with a file. Any small gaps between the veneer and the box's edges are warmed with an iron and pressed down. Finally, scrape the edge, working in toward the center for a clean surface andatight joint so that veneer applied perpendicular to the edge will produce an invisible seam.

Gluing the Sides and Top
Apply glue to the substrate. Then lay the veneer face down on the surface and into the glue while brushing glue onto the back of the veneer. Next, flip the veneer over and place it face side up, then use the фанеровочный молоток to press the veneer down firmly. Work from the center out toward the edges, applying more glue to lubricate the hammering if necessary.
If a bubble appears, brush glue onto the bubble and the surround-ing area, and press from the bubble toward the nearest edge.
When the sides are down and secure, saw off the excess, then
Lay a ruler across the points of the miter, then cut through both layers with several passes of a sharp marking knife.
Place a strip oftape across the miter, then resist for sev-eral hours the temptation to remove the tape. If needed, rewarm the joint to close the miter, then tape.
Holding a mill file flat to the surface produces a clean edge without any "rolled" edges.
file the edge flush. Apply hot glue to any gaps and press them down until the glue cools. Repeat the process for the top.

Veneering the Curved Drawer Front
Set the curved drawer front securely in the vise to allow clearance and good access to the corners. Then repeat the pro-cess for applying glue and lay-ing down the veneer. While the glue is warm, press down with the фанеровочный молоток until the corners and edges are down nicely and all the bubbles are pressed out.
Be careful not to slide the hammer off the drawer front and fracture the veneer as you apply pressure to the corners.
Next, cut off the major excess and replace the drawer front in the vise so you can press down any small gaps.
Be careful - even though I was, I still slid off the edge and cracked the veneer. But after inspecting the damage, I detetmined it would be an easy repair once the glue was dry. The next day, I used a warm household iron to heat and press down several small gaps along the corner before repairing the edge of the drawer front.

Trimming and Cleaning Up
After setting the box aside to cool and settle down, carefully inspect the edges for clean, tight and attractive joints. I use four tools to trim, clean and flush veneer seams:
• Veneer saw — to trim edges.
• Grobetdetailfile-atapered half-round file with coarse teeth on one end and fine teeth an the other to remove excess glue and expose small gaps.
• Flat card scraper - to flush the veneer to the substrate.
• 8" second-cut mill file - to perfectly flush and joint edges.

How to Flawlessly Patch Veneer
Veneer is fragile; mistakes and accidents will happen. Most of the damage will occur at the edges and corners, where patches can be cut and easily let in.
First, select a piece of veneer that closely matches the damaged area in color and grain (wetting both the patch and damaged area will give you a good idea of the final appearance). Then take a curved carving gouge and punch out a patch that covers the dam-aged area. With the same gouge punch out the damaged area and clean it out with a bench chisel. Check the patch for fit, color and grain. Then glue the patch in place and secure it with masking tape.
After the patch dries, carefully file off any excess, then file the patch flush and sand. After sand-ing, your project will be ready for finishing.
When the surface is sanded, any significant traces of glue are removed, which leaves an open-pore surface that is receptive to stain and finish. Unlike when using yellow glue, any мездровый клей residue remaining on the surface will have no adverse effect.

After applying glue to the veneer face, press down firmly with the фанеровочный молоток. Work from the center out toward the edges, squeezing out any excess glue.
A warm iron is used to soften the glue and press down any problem areas.
A carving gouge is used to punch out a damaged area. The same gouge is then used to cut a matching patch.
Once at a wood-working show, I witnessed Frank Pollaro making up veneered chess boards. He must have produced more than 30 pieces and each was perfect. The seams were tight and dean; there was no tear-out or split veneer. What impressed me most was that he was getting these results straight from his veneer saw, with no fussing or cleaning up on a shooting board later. After that, I was determined to improve the perfor-mance of mine.
Here are the steps I take to "soup up" a veneer saw. It's not necessary to do this to learn veneering, but it helps.

Flatten the spine.
Any bumps or unevennessofthe spine against the blade may result in a curved blade that won't easily cut to a straight line. To establish a flat spine, flatten the backofthespine where it attaches to the blade on a coarse sharpening stone.

Flatten the back of the blade.
On the same stone, flatten the back of the saw blade. You may want to advance to finer grit stones for a more polished blade. I find a smoother blade is easier to keep clean and rust-free.
Bevel the cutting edge. I use a 6" mill file to bevel the cutting edge on one side. Holding the file at an angle and working across the teeth, gently file until a bevel extends from the points to the gullets of the teeth. This (step) produces slender teeth that glide through veneer.
Straighten the tang. Most veneer saws have an uncomfortable hang (the angle of the handle to the blade). I found that by lowering the handle and placing it more in line with the saw blade, I got bet-ter control and improved results with less pressure. After taking apart the saw, I placed the spine in a vise and with vise grips, gently straightened the tang. Be careful.The metal typically used for this part is soft and susceptible to breaking.
File the teeth. Using a 4" double extra-slim tapered saw file, I gently bring each tooth up to a nice point. I keep the file at 90° to the teeth and file it just like a rip saw. The exact angle of the teeth isn't as important as their sharp-ness, so if your first effort isn't perfect, don't worry.
Replace the handle. This step is optional but I like to replace the short stubby grip with a slender, longer turned handle that I find easier and more comfortable to hold.

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